Audience: Intermediate
Skills: Javascript, PHP

When collaboratively constructing datasets to be consumed by interactive graphics, a Google Spreadsheet is often where everything starts. This makes a lot of sense — the cloud-based nature of the document means it’s very accessible and doesn’t need to be emailed around to everyone with each revision, multiple people can simultaneously work on it without having to worry about syncing a bunch of changes and it’s easier to use than a relational database (or even the back-end tools to manipulate such databases; for instance, phpMyAdmin.).

However, what about when the dataset’s finished? One completed, it likely has to then be exported as a CSV and imported into a database, or, worse yet, manually reproduced in another web-consumable format — for instance, JSON.

If your dataset never changes and everyone on your team knows how to move the data from Google Spreadsheets into the web-consumable format, this might not be a problem. But what about if that data changes frequently? Or what if you’re on the development end of the project and want to start building the interactive before the dataset is complete?

Clearly what’s needed is a way to make Google Spreadsheets speak JSON. Google has two built-in ways of doing this, but neither works very well — the actual spreadsheet data is buried under several layers of metadata and, worse yet, header rows don’t map to anything. These reasons combined make it difficult to use for anything more complex than a simple list.

Luckily, a great bit of code from Rob Flaherty solves this problem quite nicely. I’ll briefly go into how to use it:

    1. First, your Google Spreadsheet needs to be “published.” Note that this doesn’t mean it’s fully available online — how visible it is reflects whatever value is selected in “Sharing” settings. In short, unless your data is set to “Public on the web,” you don’t really need to worry about anyone finding it before you publish. To make it consumable for JSON, go File, Publish to the Web… and click Start Publishing. Under “Get a link to the published data,” select “CSV (comma-separated values)” and copy the URL it gives you to the clipboard.
    2. Download the CSV to JSON script and upload it to a PHP-enabled directory of your webserver.
    3. Paste the URL from step 1 into the $feed variable.

This will work fine for a local AJAX request. However, because of AJAX’s same origin requirement, you won’t be able to consume data from the script on domains outside of the one it’s being hosted on. This is problematic if, for instance, your newspaper’s tech team won’t let you run random bits of PHP on your pages and you are thus wanting to host the above script on ScraperWiki, or if you’re wanting to create a web-service that lets your readers consume the data as JSON.

The way around this is to use JSONP, which is essentially regular JSON wrapped in a callback. This lets you use jQuery’s getJSON(); function like so:

jQuery.getJSON(’’, function(response) {
//code for consuming JSON here -- JSON object returned as variable “response”

To do so, simply change the header value in the CSV to JSON script from “application/json” to “script/javascript” and replace the last line with the following:

echo $_GET['callback']. '(' . json_encode($newArray) . ');';

Alternately, I’ve posted a modified fork of Flaherty’s code here.


    1. Depending on the debug level of your version of PHP, you might get warnings about array_combine(); on line 55. Place an @ in front of that function to suppress them.
    2. The CSV to JSON script uses the first row as column headings, which are mapped as the name of each item in the JSON response. Make sure no two column headings are identical — otherwise, the first one will be overwritten by the second.